Discover the very best surgical and non-surgical penis enlargement procedures
We provide more paths to a bigger you than all our competitors combined
Girth Procedures Introduction
Increased Penis Thickness
Surgical and Non-Surgical penile girth solutions
Life lasting and semi-permanent options
Pathways for all pre-existing health conditions
Rejuvall Surgical Penile Girth Enlargement
Rejuvall’s PermaThick™ Advantages
- The notable advantage of our patented, FDA-cleared PermaThick technology for fat tissue transplants is that results are life lasting after following prescribed aftercare.
- Relatively quick recovery compared to our other surgical options: patients usually miss one day of work and 90% of patients can resume sex within four weeks – (10% of patients have 2-3 weeks of edema in penis (fluid buildup in reaction to transplanted tissue – which requires longer recovery
- Maximized outcome at no additional cost – while most patients can expect a net increase with penile thickness of one inch, the fat transplant surgical options results in additional size if your body can retain it with no added cost since the bulking agent (your own tissue) is cost free.
- An epidural and IV sedation are used for anesthesia. No general anesthesia is used, and you are not “put to sleep”. Rather, you’re sedated. Speeding post-surgical recovery and awareness without the risks of general anesthesia.
Rejuvall’s PermaThick Disadvantages
- Patient must start with adequate body fat to be a good candidate
- Enlargement involves minor surgery
- Patient cannot be over the age of 61 years old
- Patient must be a non-smoker and not a heavy drinker of alcohol (no more than one alcoholic beverage per day during post-operative care and recovery)
- Patient cannot have type II diabetes with an A1C reading above “7”.
Rejuvall Non-Surgical Penile Girth Enhancements
If you’re not interested in a surgical augmentation or your health diagnosis, age, or lifestyle habits suggest that a surgical enhancement would not achieve good results, we recommend you consider a Rejuvall non-surgical penile renewal solution.
Rejuvall’s non-surgical Penoplasty procedures are very popular with men for several reasons, including:
- No cutting, no stiches, no anesthesia: just a bigger you
- Minimal downtime compared to surgical procedures. You’re able to “walk out” afterwards with minimal discomfort and most patients can resume sexual activity within a week to ten days
- some patients just aren’t comfortable with the fact anesthesia is necessary for more invasive procedures.
- 99% of men getting a non-surgical penile augmentation can return to work the day after his enhancement.
- A non-surgical penile enhancement is a popular way to “try out” an enlargement. Those that love the increased size often evolve to a permanent surgical enhancement further down the line.
- With a non-surgical enhancement, sexual activity can usually be resumed in about seven days following the augmentation.
Importantly, we don’t administer non-surgical enhancements with a cannula having found that approach causes increased likelihood of “clumping” of the selected penile bulking agent. Rather, we believe the best non-surgical enhancement results are achieved through our breakthrough MacroSculpting technology with FDA-approved dermal fillers within the subcutaneous tissue surrounding the penile organ.
All Rejuvall non-surgical enhancements are performed by a board-certified urologist who completed a residency in plastic surgery. He also earned a PhD in pharmacology. He’s one of the premier urologic surgeons in the world.
Looking for improved response with women?
If you’re looking for the biggest bang for buck in terms of improved response with a female partner, you’ll most often find it with increased penile thickness. Particularly if your intimate partner is a mature female.
Why is that?
Women have three spots with orgasmic nerve endings
Women have three spots with orgasmic nerve endings
Men have two areas on their penis with orgasmic nerve endings, both those zones are located within the glans.
Conversely, women have three areas within their vagina with “orgasmic” nerve endings, the areas that trigger orgasmic pleasure.
The most well-known of these is the clitoris which is situated atop the entrance of the vagina. The second is within the Labia Minora, better known as the inner vaginal lips. The final spot with orgasmic nerve endings response is further inside at the cervical wall.
Most women’s cervix is only three to four inches deep within the vagina; thus, you don’t have to be hung like a mule to hit that sweet spot. Beyond that depth, nerve endings only have responsiveness akin to the nerves on your arm if you’re going deeper.
Thus, stimulation of the remaining two-thirds of hypersensitive tissue within the vagina of a female partner is tied to more thickness.
Women get wider, men become more narrow
What compounds the issue of orgasmic response during intercourse is the fact women’s vagina’s get wider over time from a combination of aging and childbirth, but men’s penises start getting smaller as they mature.
The average female vagina gets 20% to 40% wider by age fifty depending upon the number of children she’s born while a man’s penis doesn’t grow larger to offset this increase. In fact, a variety of conditions trigger a man’s penis to get smaller including aging, weight gain, Peyronie’s disease, declining vascular health, and common erectile dysfunction issues like reduced arterial blood flow to the penis, low testosterone, and venous leakage.
Women prefer a thicker penis
It’s not just clinical analytics driving the message that increased girth is the key to improved sexual response from a woman. Recent medical and psychological studies affirm this notion as well.
A new study finds that women who have frequent vaginal orgasms are more likely than other women to say they climax more easily with men with larger penises. Women who tend to prefer penile-vaginal intercourse over other types of sex also say the same, researchers reported online in The Journal of Sexual Medicine.
To study the effect of penis width vs. length on female sexual satisfaction, 50 sexually active female undergraduate students were asked which felt better, was penis width or length more important for their sexual satisfaction. None reported they did not know, or that width and length were equally satisfying. A large majority, 45 of 50, reported width was more critical for sexual satisfaction, as opposed to penis length.
“Male anxiety about penis size may not reflect internalized, culturally arbitrary masculine stereotypes, but an accurate appreciation that size matters to many women — just as men feel legitimate anxiety when they enter the mating market about their intelligence, personality traits, sense of humor, social status, height, wealth, and other traits known to be favored by women across cultures,” study researcher Stuart Brody, a psychologist at the University of the West of Scotland, told LiveScience.”
You can choose what level of thickness you want to achieve. The most obvious limitation on substantial additions to shaft thickness is the change in proportion relative to the glans.
The medical science behind creating a thicker penis
Enhancement of penile girth is much easier to achieve than adding length. It can be achieved both surgically and non-surgically.
Why is it easier?
Unlike adding penile length, increased thickness faces no contra issues with the actual penile organ.
Regardless of which exact procedure is employed, almost all penile thickening procedures add girth in the same manner, clinically speaking. It’s accomplished by adding a selected bulking agent (often by injection) into the subcutaneous tissue layers that surround the penile organ.
What’s the Subcutaneous Tissue Layers?
If you reach down and feel of your penis when flaccid, you’ll feel a thick distinguishable form in the middle. That thicker palpable portion is your erect organ tissue which resembles a very thick sponge if you observed it outside of your body. On the underside is the urethra where we urinate and procreate that’s encased by a smaller sheath of erect sponge tissue.
The “softness” you observe outside the penile organ mass includes the tunica albuginea (a sheath that encases the organ tissue), veins and arteries, the subcutaneous fat tissue layer (the part that matters to a girth enhancement) and the outer shaft skin.
Adding Thickness to the Subcutaneous Penile Tissue Layers
The secret to increasing the thickness of a penis organ is to add a selected bulking agent to the layers of subcutaneous tissue that encase the penile organ.
You’ll notice from the illustration above that the subcutaneous layer doesn’t start as a very large aspect of the penis. The good news is that its components (epidermis-skin and very small amount of tissue) are stretchable (think women’s buttocks over time).
Thus, the trick is targeting the amount of thickness you’d like, choosing a bulking agent for your penis, making certain the chosen bulking agent is safe and appropriate for your penis, and then methodically achieving your penile girth goal.
How does your penile thickness compare to other men?
How do you to measure your present penile girth?
Let’s start with the basics: how thick are you now?
All you need to measure your existing penile thickness is a soft vinyl tape measuring device. If you don’t already have one, you can alternatively employ a piece of string and use a marker to indicate the varied flaccid and erect girth measurements. Subsequently you can lay the string along a straight ruler to tally your penile thickness.
- Gently wrap the vinyl tape or string around the thickest aspect of your penile shaft
- Make note where the tape end meets or mark your string. This is your flaccid thickness.
- Masturbate to whatever gets you going quickly
- Repeat the measuring process to garner your erect
- You now have both your erect and flaccid penile thickness measurement
How does your existing thickness compare to other men?
The average circumference or width of an erect penis is 4.8 inches thickness (12.23cm). And in a flaccid state, the average penis circumference is 3.6 inches (9.16cm).
Surgical vs. non-surgical girth: Which path is right for you?
We provide two pathways for increasing penile thickness: surgical and non-surgical. The key benefits of our dermal filler versions for non-surgical enlargement are fast recovery and little or no missed time at work.
Additionally, you can usually be a cigarette smoker, be diabatic with an elevated A1C, have a heart condition – you name it. Almost every man is a candidate for a non-surgical dermal filler enhancement. Our FDA-Approved, Juvéderm® Voluma and Ravanesse brands non-surgical injectable hyaluronic acid-based dermal filler enhancements are a great way to “test drive” a thicker penis. If you love it, you can decide to pursue a longer lasting path during your next visit. However, if it’s not your thing, the Juvéderm version will all be gone within 18-36 months and the Ravanesse version only lasts 6-12 months. Also, hyaluronic acid versions can be completely reversed through a few injections of diluted hyaluronidase. We also offer a much longer lasting dermal filler injectable version with FDA-approved Bellafill.
The only men not well suited for non-surgical dermal fillers are those with an engorged supra pubic fat pad where a portion of the penis shaft is buried within the enlarged pad and men diagnosed with micro penis. With the former, the penis will usually end up half its present length because the added girth will cause the penis to retract further into the fat pad. Adding girth to a micro penis makes it appear visibly shorter because of the change in proportion. We strongly suggest those patients first get a lengthening procedure and complete all the associated aftercare to optimize their case before considering added thickness.
Rejuvall’s all-natural PermaLite non-surgical girth enhancement is a popular pathway for qualified candidates, but it has many of the same limitations to qualify as our surgical girth procedure regarding an A1C of seven or below, no smoking of cigarettes, etc. It’s most popular among men who’ve gotten a surgical girth enlargement and want to add a bit more or even-out a particular area – yet don’t want to deal with the longer recovery and intense swelling following surgical girth enlargement.
The biggest advantage of Rejuvall’s PERMAThick™ surgical girth procedure thickness is that its all-natural and provides a bigger, life-lasting outcome.
Improved self confidence affects all aspects of your life
Improved self-confidence from a bigger flaccid penis
Another benefit of a penile girth enhancement is that it hangs heavier and thicker when flaccid. Lots of patients report improved self-image and self-confidence following a Rejuvall girth enlargement.
The non-erect size of a penis is never fixed. It’s dependent upon the rates of blood flow throughout the body and any contra that inhibits blood flow to the penis.
No man wants to lower his pants just after existing a prolonged swim at the pool. Sustained direct contact with water inhibits blood flow to the penis. Certain prescription medications can likewise inhibit penile blood flow and have a similar devastating effect on flaccid size and thus, male self-confidence.
Penile girth enlargements are achieved by adding a bulking agent to the subcutaneous tissue layers that surround the penile organ. Thus, they are not directly impacted by deficiency in vascular flow. What’s been added is always there, even after several hours in a swimming pool.
If length is your priority, the most significant increase in both flaccid and erect length comes from our MegaMAXL 6:1 surgical penile lengthening procedure. It’s a game changer with length.
Rejuvall® girth can bring back your A-game
Most men can recall the more intense friction during their earliest sexual encounters. They remember the heightened sensation they felt during sexual intercourse, and they remember how their partner responded, as well.
Most don’t recall exactly when those heightened sensations changed. However, from a clinical perspective it usually be most aptly tied to changes in the width of female sexual anatomy following aging and childbirth.
A customized Rejuvall girth enlargement can help bring back those more responsive occasions during intimacy.
Are Rejuvall® girth procedures FDA-cleared?
FDA-clearance or approval is required anytime something artificial is being inserted into the body or being used to treat a human being. Of course, 94% of the procedures at Rejuvall are all natural and thus don’t require any form of FDA clearance or approval.
All enhancements provided at Rejuvall that include man-made agents like Juvéderm Voluma and Bellafill are FDA-approved for injection.
Your safety is always our number one priority.
Rejuvall Surgical Girth Options Compared
Surgical Penile Thickening Procedure Details
PERMA Thick: All Natural Surgical Girth Procedure Details $8,900
Non-Surgical Girth Procedures Details
Rejuvall offers five primary versions of non-surgical penile thickening.
PermaLite™: A non-surgical fat tissue transplant
DermaThick™: Using Ravanesse® brand Hyaluronic acid
Semi-Perma™: Using Juvéderm® Voluma brand Hyaluronic acid
RestYLite™ Using Restylane® Lift brand Hyaluronic acid
BellaThick™: Using FDA-approved Bellafill® PMMA
PermaLite™ All Natural Non-Surgical Fat Tissue Transplant
SemiPerma™ with Juvéderm® Voluma and MacroSculpting
RestYlite™ with Restylane® Lift and MacroSculpting
DermaThick™ with Ravanesse® Hyaluronic Acid and MacroSculpting
$3,000 – $5,000
BellaThick™ with FDA-Approved Bellafill®
Rejuvall Non-Surgical Girth Options Compared
Penile Girth Q&A
Why can’t I smoke cigarettes and get a fat tissue transplant?
To stay viable, transplanted fat tissue needs lots of blood flow. For 72 hours after surgery, the body doesn’t even recognize the transplant and thus it gets zero blood flow (which is why we employ our Affirmall technology before your procedure).
The fat tissue is transplanted to the subcutaneous tissue layers that surround the penis organ. The subcutaneous tissue area has almost no veins or arteries – only tiny capillaries to supply blood. Thus, the success window regarding blood flow is especially narrow.
Smoking cigarettes inhibits blood flow. It will cause a fat tissue transplant to fail. We don’t perform any procedure we think might fail. You cannot “cut down” to smoking one or two cigarettes per day and achieve a successful fat tissue transplant. It will fail. If you can’t completely quit smoking cigarettes for a minimum of six months (three months before your procedure and three months after), you don’t want to waste any money on this pathway to a thicker penis. It will all be gone within six months after the procedure making a Juvéderm Voluma or Bellafill non-surgical girth enhancement a much better value.
How Much Thickness Can Be Added to Your Penis?
When most patients decide to finally pull the trigger on an enhancement, they often feel compelled to become as big as possible as fast as possible.
That’s a nightmare begging to become reality. Some men don’t like the change in outer penile texture with select girth bulking agents. If you start more slowly you can easily adjust your best pathway.
Penile thickness is increased by adding a bulking agent to the subcutaneous tissue layers that surround the penile organ. Note the small size of the subcutaneous layers in the illustration. You can only add but so much at the start to ensure a good outcome.
The good news is that human skin and tissue are very stretchable. Variations in the size of women’s buttocks over time is a classic example of the pliability of fat tissue and skin. Alas, it requires adequate time to safely expand.
You can eventually add nearly unlimited amounts of penile thickness given adequate time for the skin to stretch between procedures. The limitation with penile width is in how much you can add at one time. You can safely add about one inch of girth at a time. Alas, we usually don’t recommend that you keep adding width beyond a certain point since it can make the penis appear distinctive as the width proportion in comparison to the glans (head of the penis) get out of alignment. In extreme cases, it transforms the appearance of a circumcised penis to that of an uncircumcised manifestation. Some men are fine with this change because of the heightening response from intimate partners. Others don’t feel it looks appealing.
You can get a glans enlargement to offset the changes in proportion, but they don’t last long. The glans is home to your “orgasmic” nerve endings, and thus you must be very careful what goes in that space. Enhancing a penis that can no longer achieve orgasm kind of defeats the purpose for the whole project, no? At present, there are no permanent bulking agents considered safe for the glans.
I didn’t find options using dermal grafts for increased thickness. Is there a reason you don’t offer that pathway?
Dermal grafts are a form of surgical penile thickness enhancement where girth is increased by adding a new additional layer of outer dermal tissue. We presently don’t offer dermal grafts for penile enlargement. We don’t believe the outcomes, cost and long-term results make for an appealing combination.
We’ve performed dermal grafts in the past. There are aspects about dermal grafts that are appealing like the more natural rigidity of the shaft skin when erect.
Why We Don’t Offer Dermal Grafts for Penile Augmentation
There are two primary reasons we don’t offer dermal grafts for penile augmentation currently.
- The Value Proposition Isn’t Very Appealing: The most added thickness a patient can gain from such a dermal transplant is about a half an inch. You can’t add more later if you want an even thicker penis. You can’t add a fat tissue transplant on top of it. We found most men prefer adding more than a half inch in penile thickness. Likewise, we find some patients aren’t sure what thickness will be best for them, early on. Do you recall our #1 insight under “Keys to a Successful Penile Girth Enlargement” list? Keep your options option.
We believe these procedures don’t give a notable girth increase and limit future options.
- Long Term Sustainability Issues with Biologic and Synthetic Dermal Tissue: Over time, transplanted dermal tissue tends to age and contract at a different rate than our own tissue. It makes sense when you consider it. When you look in a mirror: does your facial skin look the same way it did seven years ago? Did your best friends facial skin change exactly as your own? We’ve even had a number of patients who received cadaver skin transplants arrive at our clinic for repair of shaft unevenness. Based upon clinical studies for burn victims, even the highest quality synthetic dermal grafts will begin to show changes inside of a decade, some in as little as five years.
Surgery is required to repair morphed dermal grafts. We don’t feel that comprehensive combination of circumstances is appealing.
Do you offer silicone implants for enlargement?
No, we do not.
However, we are one of the leading clinics to repair men who incurred damage from a silicone penile implant for enlargement.
In our opinion, the absolute worst product in terms of anything regarding penile enhancement is silicone, whether through black market injections or the FDA-cleared versions. The injectable liquid versions tempt some because the low cost and longevity.
However, unlike injected PMMA, which can be chemically or surgically removed if you’re unhappy with the outcome, injected silicone stays inside you for the rest of your life. Likewise, you can’t change course toward another type of penile girth enhancement if you start with silicone – you’re stuck. Finally, a urologist will never be able to examine your inner penile health if that need arises as silicone blocks the view of ultrasonic sonography. Remember, life-lasting can also relate to your longevity of dealing with a lifetime of problems.
We believe a silicone implant to enlarge a penis is likewise a bad idea. The manufacturers of penile prosthetic implants for severe erectile dysfunction tried this decades ago to maintain all the original penile length like before the prosthetic was installed. They discovered that triggered an unacceptable number of cases with infection and many men who ended up with a fibrotic build up at the base of their organ (a byproduct of intensive sexual intimacy) and in some cases, severe Peyronie’s disease.
Female silicone implants for breast enlargement have a relaxed existence atop a rib cage. The journey of a penis is far more violent between intercourse and masturbation. The risks and complications far outweigh the rewards in our opinion.
We strongly advise all new patients to begin with procedures where you have the maximum number of future options if you change your mind about your direction later.
For this reason, we don’t recommend using the only FDA-approved PMMA product (Bellafill) to a beginner. Once PMMA is injected into the subcutaneous tissue surrounding the penis organ, several other potential future girth enhancing options like a Fat Tissue Transplant or Dermal Graft Transplant can no longer be employed since PMMA permanently restrict the necessary blood in the outer shaft tissue to support any form of transplant. Also, as mentioned earlier, it blocks the ability for a urologist to see inside your penis with duplex Doppler ultrasound technology in the event you face a penile health event in the future or have a need for PGE injections to enhance function as you age.
I’ve seen some of your before and after images where the penis shaft is noticeably larger than the head of the penis. Is that how your procedure works? I don’t like that look.
When a penis is thickened beyond its natural proportion, it appears a bit unnatural to first glance.
Some of those pictures are just after a procedure, so there’s some swelling present that will go away after a few months.
What men are not a good candidate for a penile girth enlargement?
We provide girth procedures for men of every size, shape and health paradigms, including both surgical and non-surgical solutions.
However, there’s two types of men we found that won’t get a good outcome if that start with a penile thickening procedure.
A patient with an engorged suprapubic fat pad that’s covering a visible portion of the flaccid penis shaft is not a good candidate for a penile thickening as his first procedure. It will cause the wider penis to visually shorten, sometimes substantially. It’s simply a matter of displacement. In a finite amount of One of our LifeSize procedures is the best place to start with such cases.
A patient with a Micropenis diagnosis is likewise usually not well suited to start with a girth enlargement. While it doesn’t measurably shorten the penile like with overweight patients, it usually gives the appearance that its shorter.
We find a penile lengthening procedure to be best suited for such cases. A micro penis patient can add girth after first fully optimizing their length.
A couple of other doctors say that fat grafts fail, and I’ll lose all my increased girth if I do that. How can you ensure that won’t happen?
Our breakthrough Affirmall technology provides the most viable fat tissue transplant available anywhere. Additionally, there’s important pre- and post-surgery care required of patients. Those who fail to follow their care regimen don’t get as good of results as those who do.
Our average loss for transplanted fat is 37%. That’s why we harvest and implant 50% more than required to offset this loss.
Some patients feel they “lost it entirely” after the post-surgical swelling subsides, which can take up to four months after a surgical girth procedure. An examination usually reveals they still retained one inch of thickness; they just got used to seeing 1 ½ to 2 inches of added thickness and assumed that would be their outcome. We’ve learned if we attempted to transplant enough to cause a girth increase that large, it all fails. Additional thickness can be achieved through another procedure six months to one year after the first one.
We succeed with our fat tissue transplants. It’s all natural, lasting and allows you to change to any other procedure in the future.
You say I must first be circumcised before getting a girth enhancement, but I found other doctors who will enhancement my girth even though I’m circumcised. What gives?
Our surgeon is recognized as one of the leading penile reconstructive surgeons on the planet. According to him, there’s over 30 different results that can go very wrong with a girth enhanced uncircumcised penis. Several of those outcomes can cause devastating outcomes.
It’s not safe. We won’t do it. We strongly advise against patients following this path.
Potential healing delays from circumcisions performed just after birth
Most circumcisions are performed just after birth by the delivering physician. For the sake of speed, infancy circumcisions are performed by pulling the foreskin back away from the glans and cutting away the excess skin along the penile shaft.
Looking down at your penis when flaccid or erect you will notice a “lighter” toned skin coloring in the area closest to the glans (head) of your penis if your circ was performed just after birth. This is called the “inner prepuce”, it’s a less dense and less durable dermis than typical penile shaft skin since it was previously situated beneath the outer foreskin before that was trimmed away.
The Issue: A Hidden Scar Line
Anytime an incision is made into the epidermis, a scar forms during healing. With deep incisions, the scar often remains visible upon the outer skin. With minor incisions like those performed during an infant circumcision, the scar becomes invisible, but it remains beneath the skin.
None of this mattered until the advent of penile girth enlargements. The prepuce skin in the distal portion of the penile shaft has no impact on sexual performance or sensitivity.
We discovered that infancy circumcision scar lines slow the healing process in about 20% of patients getting a penile girth enhancement. The degree of recovery delay is based upon how deeply the delivering physician cut into the tissue surrounding the penis organ when performing the circumcision.
Unfortunately, an infant circumcision cannot be reversed and there’s no way for us to appraise the depth of the original incision prior to an enlargement.
Thus, it’s something we’ve learned to navigate during girth enhancement procedures, but it sometimes requires patience and dedication on the part of the patient with following prescribed aftercare techniques or follow up visits at our clinic.
Circumcision Scar Line: Three potential sources for delayed healing
1. Blocked lymphatic drainage
The most common impediment to healing from an infancy circumcision is when the residual circumcision scar line is substantial enough to create a barrier that inhibits post-surgical swelling fluids from readily exiting the area behind the circ scar line. Basically, the scar line blocks the lymphatic drainage necessary for healthy healing.
This condition will usually manifest with what looks like a “pinched” narrow line around the penile shaft between the circumcision line and the glans. Residual trapped fluid from swelling that can’t effectively get reabsorbed into the body, will often resemble a thick neck area around the glans.
Complications with non-surgical enhancements from a heavier circ scar line are usually easier to resolve than surgical thickening procedures due to the simple fact there’s less swelling involved in non-surgical procedures. It’s also why we remain emphatic about starting with 10ML of the chosen dermal filler, so we can first condition the inner prepuce during the first treatment. This is particularly true with Ellansé since the polycaprolactone (which triggers an inflammatory response that creates long lasting level III collagen) can trigger significant swelling when used in larger amounts.
2. Circumcision Scar Line: Fat necrosis trapped behind scar line
A Fat Tissue Transplant is performed exactly as it sounds. Healthy, living adipose fat cells are harvested from a select location and transplanted to the outer layers of the penis to make it naturally thicker.
We harvest “extra” fat cells in anticipation of the fact some of the transplanted fat cells won’t survive the relocation process (We typically lose between 30%-35%).
Dead fat cells located beneath the circ scar line are usually easily reabsorbed into the body. However, fat cells that expire in the area above the circ scar line sometimes get trapped and can’t easily reabsorb and turn into palpable nodules known as fat necrosis (dead fat cells).